Manufacturing Process

Diagram of production processes
ccl manufacturing chart
Process Description

Green beans storage, cleaning and grading

Green Beans storage and cleaning
(Sorting and cleaning)

The green coffee received in bags / bulk is sampled and classified. The storage building incorporates natural ventilation to maintain the beans at moisture levels between 9% and 11%. The cleaning operation removes various impurities such as fabric, dust and stones using specially designed machines. The cleaned and sized coffee is held in storage silos.


Roasting and Grinding

Roasting and Grinding
(Roasting machine and grinders)

Batch weighed green coffee beans are fed into the roasters. Roasting is carried out by circulating hot air and also by colour monitoring, which in turn is dependent on temperature. On completion, the roasted beans are quenched by water injection, followed by air cooling. The beans are then ground to 2-3 mm with the help of special grinder in order to facilitate extraction.

Extraction / Clarification
(Extraction and clarification)

Ground coffee is weighed and charged into a battery of seven extractors. Purified hot water at 180° C is passed through the charge under controlled counter current conditions, and then the extractors are emptied of spent grounds and refilled with fresh ground coffee in a sequence. The liquid product is then divided into two parts.

The initial volatile aroma extract is collected and stored separately in a refrigerated tank, to be added back after the evaporation stage and before spray drying. This is to preserve the aroma in the product.

The extract that results from deeper extraction of the soluble coffee solids is clarified to remove fines prior to storage and concentration.


Evaporation & Aroma recovery

Evaporation & Aroma recovery
(Evaporation and Aroma Recovery)

The liquid extract is concentrated at this stage. Also the aromatic compounds are separated with the help of specially designed aroma recovery system.


Spray Drying

Spray Drier
(Spray Drier)

After the extraction and clarification the product in liquid form, combined with flavor, will be filtered first and then it flows through the positive pump to the Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE). The outlet of PHE goes to a high pressure pump and suction spray system. When the fine particles produced from the spray system come in contact with hot air, the water content evaporates and the temperature drops in the drying chamber which is under vacuum. The dried solid fine particles are removed from the bottom of the tower while the moist air is taken out through the cyclone. The final dried product is screened and collected in the totes for inspection and the product parameters are maintained as per the desired standards.



Spray Drying

This is an additional process by which Spray Dried powder is converted into Granules. This process involves Spray dried powder being further milled into fine particles through a pulverizer. Steam and the milled powder pass through spraying nozzles to form granules in an Agglomeration tower under vacuum. The granules then pass through a fluid bed to maintain the moisture level before going into a vibrator screen to separate over-sized granules, desired size granules and fines. The desired size granules are collected in totebins while the the fines are reprocessed.




Instead of Spray Drying the liquid extract after the extraction and clarification stage, in order to retain the inherent characteristics (including aroma and taste profile) of the coffee, Freeze Drying can be done. This freeze-drying method preserves the most 'coffee flavour' but it is a more involved procedure. First, the coffee is allowed to sit so the water evaporates naturally, leaving a concentrated coffee solution. This concentrate is then put on a conveyor and frozen to around -40 Celsius, with the water plus coffee freezing into ice crystals. Sublimation (the process of converting ice to gaseous form) is used to remove the ice. What is left, is dry grains of freeze dried coffee granules which are collected into storage containers and sent for packing. more..


Freeze Concentrated Liquid Coffee


Modern freeze concentration processes consist of a crystallization section where part of the water is converted into solid ice crystals using a refrigeration system. The ice crystals are then separated by filters, centrifuges or by using wash columns. The key aspect of the Freeze Concentration technology is maximum retention of the product quality, which is due to:

a) operation at sub zero temperatures

b) closed system design eliminating vapor/liquid interfaces

c) no loss of aroma or other vital components

d) retention of sensory properties of the original feed product

e) no thermal degradation

f) no oxidation





On the basis of laboratory tests, batches are blended and finally sieved to remove lumps for reworking. The final product is packed with the help of specialized packing machines in the form of bulk, cans, jars, pouches etc. (as per the customer requirements) and dispatched.